Luigi Galvani (1737-1798), professor of physiology at Bologna, Italy, is called the father of animal electricity. His name has been perpetuated in many terms associated with electricity. In everyday speech the word galvanize means to electrify, to stir into action as if with an electric shock.
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) was a Florentine who wrote a handbook of government for the rulers of his time. He set down the principles of taking and holding power. The word Machiavallian is now used to mean cunning, crafty, and deceitful, although originally the book did nothing more than set down as a science what is now called power politics.
The Count de Sade (1740-1814), who was infamous for his misdeeds and his writings, described a situation in which a person derived pleasure from tormenting someone he loved. Such person is called sadist. The word sadistic is often used more broadly today to mean abnormally cruel.
Marquis de Sade